The Bubonic Plague in... San Francisco?

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That time San Francisco was plagued by THE LITERAL PLAGUE.
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Mortician: Caitlin Doughty
Producer & Writer: Louise Hung (@LouiseHung1)
Editor & Graphics: Landis Blair (@landisblair)
"Black Death ('Hollaback Girl' by Gwen Stefani)": historyteachers
This video was largely informed by "Black Death at the Golden Gate: The Race to Save America from the Bubonic Plague" by David K. Randall. Thank you to Mr. Randall for your exhaustive research and illuminating insight.
We'd also like thank Marilyn Chase for her book, "The Barbary Plague: The Black Death in Victorian San Francisco". Thank you Ms. Chase for your research and thoughtful explanations.
Go read about the plague everyone!

Impact Prelude by Kevin MacLeod is licensed under a Creative Commons
Attribution 4.0 license.
Iron Horse - Silent Film Dark by Kevin MacLeod is licensed under a
Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 license.
Comic Plodding - Silent Film Dark by Kevin MacLeod is licensed under a
Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 license.
Batty McFaddin - Silent Film Light by Kevin MacLeod is licensed under
a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 license.
Bad Ideas - Silent Film Dark by Kevin MacLeod is licensed under a
Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 license.
Amazing Plan - Silent Film Dark by Kevin MacLeod is licensed under a
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Discovery Hit by Kevin MacLeod is licensed under a Creative Commons
Attribution 4.0 license.

Black Death at the Golden Gate: The Race to Save America from the Bubonic Plague
Randall, David K. W. W. Norton & Company. New York, 2019.
The Barbary Plague: The Black Death in Victorian San Francisco
Chase, Marilyn. Random House. New York, 2003.
"San Francisco's bubonic plague epidemic has eerie parallels to modern day"
"San Francisco’s Plague Years"
"Maybe Rats Aren't to Blame for the Black Death",go%20on%20to%20bite%20humans.
"Rats May Not Be to Blame for Spreading the 'Black Death'"
"Studies reveal how plague disables immune system, and how to exploit the process to make a vaccine"
"The ‘Chinese Flu’ Is Part of a Long History of Racializing Disease"

  • I love that you all love the "plague song" in this video! Alas it did not come from my brain, check out the full song here:

    Caitlin Doughty – Ask A MorticianCaitlin Doughty – Ask A Mortician2 ամիս առաջ
    • The Chinese workers that came over to work on the railroad were for all intents and purposes indentured servants and were given a temporary residence in the US. Too many of them weren't going home after their contracts were up. Sound familar? 50% of all illegal immigrants in the US were green card holders that dropped off the radar after their green cards expired. Gee...why would we ban the Chinese? It's not because of race, it's because China was taking advantage of our immigration laws.

      1776TwoPointOh1776TwoPointOh2 օր առաջ
    • Wow well done 👍✅

      Scott RichardsScott Richards5 օր առաջ
    • The begining of this video gives me York/london dungeon vibes. (10/10 recommend the horrors of history there )

      peachy girlpeachy girl5 օր առաջ
    • I knew the video the second I heard it, I love the history teachers songs🙂

      Maggie EMaggie E6 օր առաջ
    • Shout-out to my freshman geography and history of the world teacher for getting my class hooked on all the songs

      Jack CombsJack Combs9 օր առաջ
  • What I got from this video is that while history may not repeat, it sure as hell rhymes.

    Troy BaerTroy Baer3 ժամ առաջ
  • The value in this is quite simple. Look at the facts . And , if it turns out that the plague was manufactured in a laboratory in the Wuhan Provence of China, then hold them accountable. Trump did, and we will.contiue to hold the Chinese authorities that let loose this cjina plague on the world, causing several thousand deaths, accountable. Put the blame where the blame needs to go, so we learn the lessons about who we can trust. China is not one we can trust.

    S. BasgicS. Basgic4 ժամ առաջ
  • gosh Caitlin get out the road. XD

    cath paathcath paath5 ժամ առաջ
  • Here I am. Sitting here with my pet rat, Theo. Listening to a Bubonic Plague story. 🐀❤️ Theo & I really liked that not only did you talk about how cool/athletic/smart rats are, but you also clarified that all the plague spreading was really because of the flees. Theo says the only thing he spreads is love and good vibes.

    Abigail BridgesAbigail Bridges12 ժամ առաջ
  • It's weird how stupidity transcends time

    TheSchmeisterTheSchmeister14 ժամ առաջ
  • Bubonic plague sounds SO similar to acute radiation poisoning.

    kayla1245768kayla124576816 ժամ առաջ
  • Wow, I stayed at the Grant Hotel few years back.

    jack eddinsjack eddins18 ժամ առաջ
  • Unless there's a world wide conspiracy to cover up deaths (though we know for certain many deaths were attributed to covid because they had covid among other things), the survival rate does rather dictate that covid has been blown way out of proportion. That doesn't mean it's nothing, but at this point there are quite a few other things we've been wrestling with since the dawn of civilization that are more likely to kill you. Btw, Trump was reassuring the people just like most world leaders did, but for some reason (gee, I wonder why...) it's only wrong when Trump does it. He, nor anyone else except those working closest with it, could know how bad it would or wouldn't be.

    WhatIsMisophoniaWhatIsMisophonia21 ժամ առաջ
  • Not to be racist buuut (that's never a good way to start a sentence)... What's the deal with southern China and pandemics anyway? I get that there's a lot of people who live in squalor and also eat anything that moves, but I still get the feeling there's just something about the region and climate that breeds novel human-hating disease.

    WhatIsMisophoniaWhatIsMisophonia22 ժամ առաջ
  • You're my boy blue!

    Bumble BeeBumble BeeՕր առաջ
  • You know what's more deadly than a bubonic plague or a bullet in the face? Covid apparently

    Bumble BeeBumble BeeՕր առաջ
  • In 1906, carried by rats and their fleas, the bubonic plague came from China to San Francisco. With powerful political and business foes fighting at every turn, a series of brave people tried and failed to institute necessary health measures. Finally a Dr. Blue, thought to be a good old boy from the south, stepped in- and to the chagrin of the elites- did what had to be done. He killed the rats, cleaned up the streets, and finally stopped a plague that could have devastated the whole of the United States as it once killed half of Europe. If Dr. Blue could kill the rats and stop the plague, surely we can... I don't know... Wear masks? Caitlin- I don't know if you know this, but the above paragraph, Your idea, is probably the best case of guerrilla education (realpolitik) I have ever seen. You are way smarter than you present. I also think you might be hyperactive, since the depth and layering of your videos is decptively difficult, requiring a rainbow of knowledge and skills. Not to mention the total output. I mean, when do you sleep? Peace

    Peter ThierrryPeter ThierrryՕր առաջ
  • Magnificent, as always :) Many thanks

    Alisdair WilliamsAlisdair WilliamsՕր առաջ
  • There is bubonic plague in the LA homeless camps. Now.

    Guy ConradGuy ConradՕր առաջ
  • The song not so much better me and u Take a ride love you God bless 👍💋💓

    thomas sorrelsthomas sorrelsՕր առաջ
  • .............. ........the plague fake....🤣

    AnonBiscuitAnonBiscuitՕր առաջ
  • Thank you for this video!

    Manny EspinolaManny EspinolaՕր առաջ
  • "Like Baby on board but Less fun " I Love Love your sense of Humor !!!!

    svagrodsvagrodՕր առաջ
  • Oh no, I keep checking my lymph glands just in case it’s more than the usual egg leg.

    Derry PopeDerry PopeՕր առաջ
  • It’s always China...

    DionysusDionysusՕր առաջ
  • Dear Caitlin (as in "Dear Abby") "the China plague" (interjected along with a 1.5 sec vid of Ex- President Trump, and repeated 2-3 times). Well now, Mortician (even though I still plan to have my ashes interred in your yard), please let me ask you, and other women, a question that continues to evade my understanding: Why is it that so many American women seem to have automatically expressed such distain for Donald Trump, even though knowing next to nothing about the man until he declared himself a candidate for the 2016 presidential nomination? In the years following Mr. Trump's election, both the employment percentage and earnings of women and minorities in this country reached an all-time high. There was also a higher percentage of women appointed to positions in the Trump administration than any other in the history of our republic. Why did you vote him out of office?

    jeffry gagnonjeffry gagnonՕր առաջ
  • That plague song took me all the way back to the seventh grade and I’m glad that I forgot about it lmao I did not expect that to hear that today

    Jamie VeeJamie VeeՕր առաջ
  • Wear a mask? Doesn't yours work?

    Eric WEric WՕր առաջ
  • "A good Bang day" When the context is important. xD

    Jolly NovaJolly Nova2 օր առաջ
  • Can't give haffkin too much trouble i mean a vaccine thats half effective is pretty good for the time.

    Jason KimesJason Kimes2 օր առաջ
  • Love your dark and irreverent sense of humour!

    Owen OultonOwen Oulton2 օր առաջ
  • There is no war in Ba Sing Se

    Walter LWalter L2 օր առաջ
  • They need to ban China from the world now.

    CortexCortex2 օր առաջ
    • Just get a map of earth and erase it

      Asuki TamashiAsuki TamashiՕր առաջ
  • The US averages 1-16 deaths per year from BP. It came over from China around 1910 on a cargo ship and is now part of the Rock Mountain's ecosystem. Campers, of no ages in particular, are the primary victims.

    1776TwoPointOh1776TwoPointOh2 օր առաջ
  • Was Trump a descendent of Gage?

    Frizzy KiKiFrizzy KiKi2 օր առաջ
    • Idk

      Asuki TamashiAsuki TamashiՕր առաջ
  • Watching in January 2021.. All of the below comments, and now people refusing vaccines. Repeat, repeat, repeat.

    wildflowersnhoney209wildflowersnhoney2092 օր առաջ
  • Ten years after the plague is declared gone from San Francisco the 1918 pandemic hits and I’m sure people were just done with disease forever

    Eire DuchessEire Duchess3 օր առաջ
  • Why are you so funny?

    Kelvin InnocentKelvin Innocent3 օր առաջ
  • i really like your chanel kissies from ksa

    zahra saifzahra saif3 օր առաջ
  • (Rhetorical) Question, the people asking you not to make it about race; where they expecting you to lie? Cut out 70% of the actual historical information, or just straight up stop doing videos on historic events?

    MidoriyamaRArekusuMidoriyamaRArekusu3 օր առաջ
  • Mind the man in the big white van Caitlin!! pmsl

    Lyndsay McFadzeanLyndsay McFadzean3 օր առաջ
  • Lol trump saying “the China plague” we’ll... I it did come from China

    MissyMissy3 օր առաջ
  • RATS!

    J SamJ Sam3 օր առաջ
  • My office is in the background on Broadway and Kearny. I wish I'd seen you there so I could have said hi cuz I think you're awesome and funny af! 👍

    MiSTR JTMiSTR JT3 օր առաջ
  • luv the trump inserts

    Ned KNed K3 օր առաջ
  • Really love when you sing...because that's something I would do with random thoughts...or doing random things. Like, " Kerrygold butter is better" or whatever but, it keeps me sane! Anyway, really like your channel a lot because I love history and it's fascinating to hear about certain stories about death (I also look at visiting gravesites of the stars). And I think you are awesome!!

    Sheronda LewisSheronda Lewis4 օր առաջ
  • Caitlin go to Kuala lumpur! There's a coffin shop literally called "fook chun's coffin shop" near China town

    DreamBeliefDreamBelief4 օր առաջ
  • It seems like, back in those years, nature was trying to show how much of a s***hole San Francisco was already. Humans didn't listen, and ol' San Fran is still a s**hole in 2021... Humans are prone to keep repeating same old mistakes over and over again. Next one: communism!

    Tommy GunTommy Gun4 օր առաջ
  • You know what's funny with leftists? They can't do their thing without including their hate for President Donald J. Trump. That mental illness is transforming in hate for President Trump supporters... That's a call for unity from leftist, isn't? LMFAO! The truth is President Trump still playing on leftists like they were fiddles. And his supporters, we live in your minds rent free! XD Excellent videos by the way. I love this channel.

    Tommy GunTommy Gun4 օր առաջ
    • update apparently you still can call him the president after hes out of office my bad. im Not american idk US political shit lmao . im not gonna try to radicalize you to the left bc theres No Point but yk. my bad here actually!!

      jaime wormsjaime worms3 օր առաջ
    • @Tommy Gun you say so many words.....and none of them make any sense....i simply asked you to stop calling somebody the president when he is clearly legally no longer the president. ??????? ?? ? ?? also dont use my name that was kind of weird lmao

      jaime wormsjaime worms3 օր առաջ
    • @jaime worms Hahaha! "To stop"... why? You're offended? Good! You leftists started a feud 4 years ago over an electoral fraud that never happened lead by Hillary Clinton, who'll never be president. You started that even if we told you you were too much of snowflakes to go through it... And now, there's grotesque Joe Biden in office. The most popular President in history... No one's buying that! Not even hardcore leftists... So Jaime, you want me to stop...? Quit daydreaming :) We will never stop... NEVER!!! :D

      Tommy GunTommy Gun3 օր առաջ
    • hes..not the president anymore you can stop

      jaime wormsjaime worms3 օր առաջ
  • Kill the humans save the rats

    Ice CactusIce Cactus4 օր առաջ
  • There's rats in my room currently. Pet rats are cool

    Kenny MariaKenny Maria4 օր առաջ
  • And then San Francisco had the worst numbers of the Spanish Flu😶

    Michael StottMichael Stott4 օր առաջ
  • Why does my reply to a comment keep disappearing! I repost, but instantly, its gone! Not fair! I even deleted parts I thought might be offensive to some if you really stretch it. What's going on?!

    cat magiccat magic4 օր առաջ
  • OMG! Every pandemic folllows the same patterns, caused by corrupt politicians. Diaper Donnie is NOT A GENIUS. SURPRISE SURPRISE! 💩😈💩

    cat magiccat magic4 օր առաջ
  • So crazy I just started Warrior and this came up on my feed.

    stemcellwhoaxstemcellwhoax4 օր առաջ
  • Hilarious!

    john tjohn t4 օր առաջ
  • eradicated.... e-rat-icated

    HyuugaC0bicatHyuugaC0bicat4 օր առաջ
  • I love your sarcasm! You make me laugh and make my day x

    Jacob MayhewJacob Mayhew4 օր առաջ
  • Caitlin tells it like is! She doesn’t die history it’s not her fault the ppl of San Fran were racist it’s just facts

    Kay Lee HowardKay Lee Howard5 օր առաջ
  • "The Chinese didn't want there to be plague. The government didn't want there to be plague. The press didn't want there to be plague. So everyone just goes, 'No plague here!'" It's amazing how knowing history can help us predict the future. It seems like humans never change.

    MaiCohWolfMaiCohWolf5 օր առաջ
  • "look for plague,but not for anything incriminating" feels like "the less tests we have,the less cases there are"... America

    Fat fluffy BunnyFat fluffy Bunny5 օր առաջ
  • omg i just died with that little piece of the History Teacher's Bubonic Plague song lol

    Shnikki_ReadsShnikki_Reads5 օր առաջ
  • We've learned so much?

    Jim FortuneJim Fortune5 օր առաջ
  • ♥️♥️👍👍love your videos, very insightful and informative.

    MexicanReformistMexicanReformist5 օր առաջ
  • I love for Caitlin yelling ‘Raaatttsss’ in the stress of San Francisco.

    Antonette YbarraAntonette Ybarra5 օր առաջ
  • It took them 8 years to get their act together omg. That’s awful. I’m glad it had a happy ending. Makes me hopeful that maybe things now will.

    craisins95craisins955 օր առաջ
  • Surely you know Donald called it the China plague NOT the Chinese plague. He was referring to it coming from China and their failure to contain it.

    KS 29KS 296 օր առաջ
  • Ive just found your channel tonight!! Bloody brilliant!! New subscriber 🤪

    Kelly WalshKelly Walsh6 օր առաջ
  • I loved the cameo appearances of cheeto trump

    Regina HolomanRegina Holoman6 օր առաջ
  • Seldom attacks Europeans....Ummm wasnt like 60% of Europe Decimated by this same plague in the 1300s and 1600s???

    AsigedgeAsigedge6 օր առաջ
  • Australia has an outbreak of the plague in 1890’s to early 1900’s in the outback 🤷🏻‍♀️

    Jess EssJess Ess6 օր առաջ
  • This is the only gender wage gap i approve

    Charlotte BerrymanCharlotte Berryman6 օր առաջ
  • Why pandemics and shit always starting in China tho? Well even if this didn’t start in China the third wave did so I wanna say the first did as well for some reason. Weirdddddddd

    Jadyn PetoJadyn Peto6 օր առաջ
  • “The plague fake!” Lmao I couldn’t keep it together after the third one! Thankfully I didn’t wake up my fiancé lol also gotta love that egg leg!

    Logan VannorLogan Vannor6 օր առաջ
  • 4:58 buboes lol

    Bored InsomniacBored Insomniac6 օր առաջ
  • Is it legally ok to take jewelry off of a dead relative before being buried? I didn’t think it was ok but recently someone did this so we are wondering if we can do anything about it.

    Judy BairdJudy Baird7 օր առաջ
  • America has a long tradition of amplifying and overreacting. And the media certainly is guilty of playing up any threat. Did Spain really attack the US? Maybe this statement is true but the media could not be trusted then in 1898, as most seem to agree, so why would we trust them in 1900 or 2020? The Spanish-American War (Spanish: Guerra hispano-estadounidense or Guerra hispano-americana; Filipino: Digmaang Espanyol-Amerikano) was an armed conflict between Spain and the United States in 1898. Hostilities began in the aftermath of the internal explosion of USS Maine in Havana Harbor in Cuba, leading to U.S. intervention in the Cuban War of Independence. The war led to the U.S. emerging predominant in the Caribbean region,[15] and resulted in U.S. acquisition of Spain's Pacific possessions. That led to U.S. involvement in the Philippine Revolution and ultimately to the Philippine-American War

    Umberto AmanteUmberto Amante7 օր առաջ
  • I'm a rat too. I like your stories.

    Adam NilesAdam Niles7 օր առաջ
  • Read Boccaccio's "Decameron" for some bawdy stories occurring around the plague as it overtook Italy in the 14th Century. It's worth your time! Also read Chaucer's, "The Pardoner's Tale." It's short and "death-ly."

    Bev M-LBev M-L7 օր առաջ
  • Holy crap. The resemblance is uncanny. 100 years later and well..... Unsettling to say the least.

    rachel ericsonrachel ericson7 օր առաջ
  • "There's probably a rat near you right now" Hmmm. **looks around** I dunno. I live on the third floor of an apartment complex, in a clean Finnish neighborhood, in the middle of winter. Now I'm actually curious where the nearest rat to me is! There's definitely a lot of nature around, but I've never seen a rat outside, let alone inside - I don't even get spiders or bugs in this apartment, so if a rat is hiding under something, then he hella sneaky.

    Imagine KudryavkaImagine Kudryavka7 օր առաջ
    • @Asuki Tamashi Ummm.. I feel like I was pretty direct. I dunno how to help you, dude

      Imagine KudryavkaImagine KudryavkaՕր առաջ
    • Wtf u on about

      Asuki TamashiAsuki TamashiՕր առաջ
  • Funny thing is Guangdong is the birthplace of the current nasties that have invaded the world.. What the heck goes on there? Perhaps it is time to backfill the town in 3 feet of concrete. Seems like this place is where everything bad gets its start.

    Rishi BeautyRishi Beauty7 օր առաջ
    • COVID originally spread to a human because a animal researcher f*cked a ape in the early 1900s,but the outbreak did start in china because there are big markets with food,leather, fur and other animal(parts), these places are never truly sanatary and infections and viruses can travel from one to the next extremely easily,in these markets you can buy parts of dogs, cats, spiders and you guessed it,bats. A lot of people (especially older people) don't know much about bacteria and crosscontamination (not washing their hands,knives, cutting boards where a lot of blood and bacteria sits), that's where covid came from Edit: covid is originally a animal sickness that didn't spread to humans before,but by having sex with a ape or by eating a infected animal it can spread to humans

      Fat fluffy BunnyFat fluffy Bunny5 օր առաջ
  • As others probably pointed out here, Rat isn't a bad sign. Rats come first in the Chinese zodiac. It's a long story, but Buddha arranged a race of all the animals to see who would be first in this system, and Rat won by a nose: Rat was clever enough to hitch a rode with Ox, and climbed onto his snout at the end of the race, so technically he finished first by having his whole body over the finish line before Ox. Rat people are clever, quit witted, sociable, persuasive, and talkative. On the downside, they can also be meddlesome know-it-alls that some might mistake as terrible gossips, but truly Rats are just great informants that almost never pass along "fake news" without good reason.

    Max CovfefeMax Covfefe7 օր առաջ
    • @The Slippery Noodle yeah, it's an old story told many ways.

      Max CovfefeMax Covfefe5 օր առաջ
    • Makes me think of the anime Fruits Basket! The cat was kicked out of the zodiac in that anime. 🐈

      The Slippery NoodleThe Slippery Noodle5 օր առաջ
  • This was my favorite! I lived in San Francisco for 20 years up above Chinatown. One day I was riding through the tenderloin. Some one threw a radio out of the window at the bus and the woman next to me said “ how Medieval “. I thought that was funny and ironic. I would have really laughed my ass off if I’d known about this.

    Elsa&lisaElsa&lisa7 օր առաջ
  • I like your energy when talking about death. Making it interesting 😀. Time to get a plague doctors outfit.

    TerranStrikerTerranStriker7 օր առաջ
  • Amazing to see the denialism, was alive and well then too. I thought it was really bad this past year and perhaps people back then had a little more sense. Due to how San Fran. handled the 1918 flu pandemic's second wave, which was better than this plague outbreak. They locked down before it got to them really bad in 1918 and were more proactive by then. This was very interesting and I now get precisely why, they in particular, took pathogens more seriously by 1918. History repeats itself in 2020-2021. People just don't get it, but thank goodness for the scientifically literate in infectious disease, who do take it seriously. Like you Caitlin, bravo with that ending.

    Bill Does StuffBill Does Stuff7 օր առաջ
  • Wow, over a thousand salty ass buboes with cognitive dissonance... Appreciate you Caitlin. History hurts. Tell it anyway.

    Brighid NicholeBrighid Nichole7 օր առաջ
  • Suddenly... I feel like I'm living in 1900

    Rowan LamoureuxRowan Lamoureux8 օր առաջ
  • BJ/DSL lips....

    mgee63mgee638 օր առաջ
  • I go too excited at hearing "Shine on Harvest Moon" in the background!

    Georgia CamachoGeorgia Camacho8 օր առաջ
  • I just love your humor!

    Rita McCartt-KordonRita McCartt-Kordon8 օր առաջ
  • Wow! It's incredible that after all this time, we keep making the same mistakes...

    Angélica CalderónAngélica Calderón8 օր առաջ
  • I love this awesome lady 😍

    Trump cowardly TraitorTrump cowardly Traitor8 օր առաջ
  • so it starts every time in china, and then covid started from there as well. Im starting to see a pattern here.

    Kossolax the ForeswornKossolax the Foresworn8 օր առաջ
    • @The Slippery Noodle or generally filthy, eating shit that isnt real food and practicing "medicine" that is killing hundreds of species into extinction around the globe, and gives you diseases while at it.

      Kossolax the ForeswornKossolax the Foresworn5 օր առաջ
    • I would say primarily large population.

      The Slippery NoodleThe Slippery Noodle5 օր առաջ
  • I'm a female tiger. That's bad news for you!

    ixtasisixtasis8 օր առաջ
  • 'We can wear a mask' best line ever with this video

    Queen JellyfishQueen Jellyfish8 օր առաջ
  • You do the very best videos on AMworlds!I love the way you handle every single subject and present facts with interesting style!You're witty and pretty too?I believe I'm going to love it here!Fan for life!You're a gifted speaker and very knowledgeable about your craft!

  • This needs to be made into a movie, it’s fascinating

    Rose from UKRose from UK8 օր առաջ
  • aaannnnd people compare covid to this........ no this shit's scary

    Auna Breslin gamingAuna Breslin gaming8 օր առաջ
  • Your English accent in the beginning wasn’t actually terrible!

    Aziza BrownAziza Brown8 օր առաջ
  • The gut of the flea becomes blocked by the bacteria of the plague, causing it to vomit contaminated blood onto the bite of the victim thusly spreading the plague. It’s not the flea bite alone but the contaminated vomit getting into the wound that causes the infection. Also there are other forms of the plague apart from bubonic which had the highest rate of survival, there was pneumonic then last septicemic plague with the highest death rate.

    Kat JKat J8 օր առաջ
  • 22:27 My cat, curled up next to me, shifted in her sleep.

    Tiny WalnutTiny Walnut9 օր առաջ
  • Dr. Fauci in 2020

    Reina NijinskyReina Nijinsky9 օր առաջ
  • For a serious topic I spent half the time laughing. I also learned something new. Win win. Those poor rats and guinea pigs :(

    Nanuq 83Nanuq 839 օր առաջ